It is headed by a Catholicos (the plural isCatholicoi). Although it is traditional in Eastern churches for the supreme head of the church to be named ‘Patriarch’, in the Armenian Apostolic Church hierarchy, the position of the Catholicos is higher than that of the Patriarch. The Armenian Apostolic Church presently has two catholicoi (Karekin II, Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians, and Aram I , Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia), and two patriarchs, plus primates, archbishops and bishops, lower clergy and laity serving the Church.
The Catholicos of All Armenians represents the centralised authority of the Armenian Church. He is the supreme judge and the head of the legislative body. He is President of the Supreme Spiritual Council as well as the College of Bishops . Ordination of bishops, blessing of Holy Chrism , proclamation of feasts, invitation and dismissal of National-ecclesiastical assemblies, issuing decrees concerning the administration of the Armenian Church and establishing dioceses are part of his responsibilities.
Both clergy and lay are involved in the administrative structure of the Church. Led by Karekin II, the spiritual and administrative work of the Armenian Church is carried out in the Republic of Armenia in the areas of religion, preparation of clergy, Christian education, construction of new churches, social services, and ecumenical activities. Underneath this administrative structure are the hierarchical sees:
The Catholicossate of the Great House of Cilicia located in Antelias , Lebanon, is a regional See with current jurisdiction of the Dioceses of Lebanon, Syria and Cyprus as temporarily granted to her by the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem in 1929, is led by Catholicos Aram I.
The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem which has jurisdiction over all of the Holy Lands and the Diocese of Jordan, is led by Patriarch Archbishop Nourhan Manougian .
The three historic aforementioned hierarchal sees administer to the Dioceses under their jurisdiction as they see fit, however, the supremacy of the Catholicosate of All Armenians in all spiritual matters remains pre-eminent.
In addition to the responsibilities of overseeing their respective Dioceses, each hierarchical See, and the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, has a Monastic Brotherhood.